Syrian Civil War Fast Facts

When the civil warfare started in 2011, there have been 4 essential factions of combating teams all through the nation: Kurdish forces, ISIS, different opposition (comparable to Jaish al Fateh, an alliance between the Nusra Front and Ahrar-al-Sham) and the Assad regime. But as ISIS loses management of most of its territory, combatants are actually freer to assault one another.

Timeline

March 2011 – Violence flares in Daraa after a gaggle of teenagers and youngsters are arrested for writing political graffiti. Dozens of individuals are killed when safety forces crack down on demonstrations.

March 24, 2011 – In response to persevering with protests, the Syrian authorities proclaims a number of plans to appease residents. State workers will obtain a direct wage improve. The authorities additionally plans to check lifting Syria’s lengthy standing emergency regulation and the licensing of recent political events.

March 30, 2011 – Assad addresses the nation in a 45-minute televised speech. He acknowledges that the federal government has not met the individuals’s wants, however he doesn’t provide any concrete adjustments. The state of emergency stays in impact.

April 21, 2011 – Assad lifts the nation’s 48-year-old state of emergency. He additionally abolishes the Higher State Security Court and points a decree “regulating the right to peaceful protest, as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Syrian Constitution.”

May 18, 2011 – The United States imposes sanctions towards Assad and 6 different senior Syrian officers. The Treasury Department particulars the sanctions by saying, “As a result of this action, any property in the United States or in the possession or control of US persons in which the individuals listed in the Annex have an interest is blocked, and US persons are generally prohibited from engaging in transactions with them.”

August 18, 2011 – The United States imposes new financial sanctions on Syria, freezing Syrian authorities belongings within the US, barring Americans from making new investments within the nation and prohibiting any US transactions referring to Syrian petroleum merchandise, amongst different issues.

September 2, 2011 – The European Union bans the import of Syrian oil.

September 23, 2011 – The EU imposes further sanctions towards Syria, as a result of “the continuing brutal campaign” by the federal government towards its personal individuals.

October 2, 2011 – A brand new alignment of Syrian opposition teams establishes the Syrian National Council, a framework via which to finish Assad’s authorities and set up a democratic system.

October 4, 2011 – Russia and China veto a UN Security Council decision that may name for a direct halt to the crackdown in Syria towards opponents of Assad. Nine of the 15-member council nations, together with the United States, voted in favor of adopting the decision.

November 12, 2011 – The Arab League suspends Syria’s membership, efficient November 16, 2011.

November 27, 2011 – Foreign ministers from 19 Arab League nations vote to impose financial sanctions towards the Syrian regime for its half in a bloody crackdown on civilian demonstrators.

November 30, 2011 – Turkey proclaims a sequence of measures, together with monetary sanctions, towards Syria.

December 19, 2011 – Syria indicators an Arab League proposal geared toward ending violence between authorities forces and protesters.

January 28, 2012 – The Arab League suspends its mission in Syria as violence there continues.

February 2, 2012 – A UN Security Council assembly ends with no settlement on a draft decision supposed to strain Syria to finish its crackdown on anti-government demonstrators.

February 4, 2012 – A UN Security Council decision condemning Syria isn’t adopted after Russia and China vote towards it.

February 6, 2012 – The United States closes its embassy in Damascus and recollects its diplomats.

February 7, 2012 – The Gulf Cooperation Council proclaims its member states are pulling their ambassadors from Damascus and expelling the Syrian ambassadors of their nations.

February 16, 2012 – The United Nations General Assembly passes a nonbinding decision endorsing the Arab League plan for Assad to step down. The vote was 137 in favor and 12 towards, with 17 abstentions.
February 26, 2012 – Syrians vote on a constitutional referendum in polling facilities throughout the nation. Almost 90% of voters approve the adjustments to the structure, which embrace the potential of a multi-party system.
March 13, 2012 – Kofi Annan, the UN particular envoy to Syria, meets in Turkey with authorities officers and Syrian opposition members. In a go to to Syria over the weekend, he requires a ceasefire, the discharge of detainees and permitting unfettered entry to aid companies to ship much-needed assist.

March 15, 2012 – The Gulf Cooperation Council proclaims that the six member nations will shut their Syrian embassies and calls on the worldwide neighborhood “to stop what is going on in Syria.”

March 27, 2012 – The Syrian authorities accepts Annan’s plan to finish violence. The proposal seeks to cease the violence, give entry to humanitarian companies, launch detainees and begin a political dialogue to deal with the considerations of the Syrian individuals.

April 1, 2012 – At a convention in Istanbul, the worldwide group Friends of the Syrian People formally acknowledges the Syrian National Council as a professional consultant of the Syrian individuals.

July 30, 2012 – The Syrian Charge d’Affaires in London, Khaled al-Ayoubi, resigns, stating he’s “no longer willing to represent a regime that has committed such violent and oppressive acts against its own people.”

August 2, 2012 – UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon proclaims that Annan is not going to renew his mandate when it expires on the finish of August.

August 6, 2012 – Syrian Prime Minister Riyad Hijab’s resignation from workplace and defection from Assad’s regime is learn on Al Jazeera by his spokesman Muhammad el-Etri. Hijab and his household are mentioned to have left Syria in a single day, arriving in Jordan. Hijab is the highest-profile official to defect.

August 9, 2012 – Syrian tv reviews that Assad has appointed Health Minister Wael al-Halki as the brand new prime minister.

October 3, 2012 – Five individuals are killed by Syrian shelling within the Turkish border city of Akcakale. In response, Turkey fires on Syrian targets and its parliament authorizes a decision giving the federal government permission to deploy its troopers to overseas nations.

November 11, 2012 – Israel fires warning photographs towards Syria after a mortar shell hits an Israeli army put up. It is the primary time Israel has fired on Syria throughout the Golan Heights for the reason that 1973 Yom Kippur War.

November 11, 2012 – Syrian opposition factions formally comply with unite because the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.

November 13, 2012 – Sheikh Ahmed Moaz al-Khatib is elected chief of the Syrian opposition collective, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.

January 6, 2013 – Assad proclaims he is not going to step down and that his imaginative and prescient of Syria’s future features a new structure and an finish to help for the opposition. The opposition refuses to work with Assad’s authorities.

March 19, 2013 – The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces elects Ghassan Hitto as its prime minister. Though born in Damascus, Hitto has spent a lot of his life within the United States, and holds twin US and Syrian citizenship.

April 25, 2013 – US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel proclaims the United States has proof that the chemical weapon sarin has been utilized in Syria on a small scale.

May 27, 2013 – EU nations finish the arms embargo towards the Syrian rebels.

May 27, 2013 – US Senator John McCain visits rebels in Syria. It is reported that he’s the very best rating US official to go to for the reason that starting of the warfare.
June 13, 2013 – US President Barack Obama says that Syria has crossed a “red line” with its use of chemical weapons towards rebels. His administration signifies that will probably be stepping up its help of the rebels, who’ve been calling for the United States and others to offer arms wanted to battle Assad’s forces.

July 6, 2013 – Ahmad Assi Jarba is elected the brand new chief of the Syrian National Coalition.

August 18, 2013 – A crew of UN weapons inspectors arrives in Syria to start an investigation into whether or not chemical weapons have been used in the course of the civil warfare.
August 22, 2013 – The United Nations and the United States name for a direct investigation of Syrian activists’ claims that the Assad authorities used chemical weapons in an assault on civilians on August 21. Anti-regime activist teams in Syria say greater than 1,300 individuals have been killed within the assault outdoors Damascus, a lot of them girls and youngsters.

August 24, 2013 – Medical charity Doctors Without Borders proclaims that three hospitals close to Damascus handled greater than 3,000 sufferers struggling “neurotoxic symptoms” on August 21. Reportedly, 355 of the sufferers died.

August 26, 2013 – UN inspectors attain the positioning of a reported chemical assault in Moadamiyet al-Sham, close to Damascus. En path to the positioning, the crew’s convoy is hit by sniper fireplace. No one is injured.

August 29, 2013 – The UK’s Parliament votes towards any army motion in Syria.

August 30, 2013 – US Secretary of State John Kerry says that US intelligence data has discovered that 1,429 individuals have been killed in final week’s chemical weapons assault in Syria, together with at the very least 426 youngsters.
September 9, 2013 – Syria agrees to a Russian proposal to surrender management of its chemical weapons.
September 10, 2013 – In a speech, Obama says he is not going to “put American boots on the ground in Syria,” however doesn’t rule out different army choices.
September 14, 2013 – The United States and Russia comply with a plan to eradicate chemical weapons in Syria.
September 16, 2013 – The United Nations releases a report from chemical weapons inspectors who investigated the August 21 incident. Inspectors say there may be “clear and convincing evidence” that sarin was used.
September 20, 2013 – Syria releases an preliminary report on its chemical weapons program.

September 27, 2013 – The UN Security Council passes a decision requiring Syria to eradicate its arsenal of chemical weapons. Assad says he’ll abide by the decision.

September 30, 2013 – At the UN General Assembly in New York, Syrian Foreign Minister Walid al-Moualem says that Syria isn’t engaged in a civil warfare, however a warfare on terror.
October 6, 2013 – Syria begins dismantling its chemical weapons program, together with the destruction of missile warheads and aerial bombs.

October 31, 2013 – The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons proclaims that Syria has destroyed all its declared chemical weapons manufacturing services.

November 25, 2013 – The United Nations proclaims that beginning January 22 in Geneva, Switzerland, the Syrian authorities and an unknown variety of opposition teams will meet at a “Geneva II” convention meant to dealer an finish to the Syrian civil warfare.

December 2, 2013 – UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay says {that a} UN fact-finding crew has discovered “massive evidence” that the very best ranges of the Syrian authorities are liable for warfare crimes.

January 20, 2014 – The Syria National Coalition proclaims it will not take part within the Geneva II talks until the United Nations rescinds its shock invitation to Iran or Iran agrees to sure situations. The United Nations later rescinds Iran’s invitation.
February 13, 2014 – The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons tells CNN that Syria has shipped out 11% of its chemical weapons stockpile, falling far in need of the February 5 deadline to have all such arms faraway from the nation.
February 15, 2014 – A second spherical of peace talks ends in Geneva, Switzerland, with little progress in ending Syria’s civil warfare.
February 23, 2014 – The UN Security Council unanimously passes a decision boosting entry to humanitarian assist in Syria.

June 3, 2014 – Assad is re-elected, reportedly receiving 88.7% of the vote within the nation’s first election since civil warfare broke out in 2011.

September 22-23, 2014 – The United States and allies launch airstrikes towards ISIS targets in Syria, specializing in the town of Raqqa.
September 14-15, 2015 – A Pentagon spokesperson says the Russian army seems to be trying to arrange a ahead working base in western Syria, within the space across the port metropolis of Latakia. Russian President Vladimir Putin says that Russia is supporting the Syrian authorities in its combat towards ISIS.
October 30, 2015 – US White House spokesman Josh Earnest says that the US will likely be deploying “less than 50” Special Operations forces, who will likely be despatched to Kurdish-controlled territory in northern Syria. The American troops will assist native Kurdish and Arab forces combating ISIS with logistics and are planning to bolster their efforts.
February 26, 2016 – A brief cessation of hostilities goes into impact. The truce requires the Syrian regime and rebels to provide aid organizations entry to disputed territories to allow them to help civilians.
March 15, 2016 – Russia begins withdrawing its forces from Syria. A spokeswoman for Assad tells CNN that the Russian marketing campaign is winding down after reaching its purpose of serving to Syrian troops take again territory claimed by terrorists.
September 15, 2016 – At least 23 individuals, together with 9 youngsters, are killed throughout airstrikes in Syria, with the United States and Russia accusing one another of violating the ceasefire in impact since September 12.
September 17, 2016 – US-led coalition airstrikes close to Deir Ezzor Airport supposed to focus on ISIS as an alternative kill 62 Syrian troopers.
September 20, 2016 – An assist convoy and warehouse of the Syrian Arab Red Crescent are bombed; nobody claims accountability. The strike prompts the UN to halt assist operations in Syria.
September 23-25, 2016 – About 200 airstrikes hit Aleppo in the course of the weekend, with one activist telling CNN it’s a degree of bombing they haven’t seen earlier than.
December 13, 2016 – As authorities forces take management of most of Aleppo from insurgent teams, Turkey and Russia dealer a ceasefire for japanese Aleppo in order that civilians might be evacuated. The UN Security Council holds an emergency session amid reviews of mounting civilian deaths and extrajudicial killings. The ceasefire collapses lower than a day after it’s applied.
December 22, 2016 – Syria’s state-run media proclaims authorities forces have taken full management of Aleppo, ending greater than 4 years of insurgent rule there.
April 4, 2017 – Dozens of civilians are reportedly killed in a suspected chemical assault within the rebel-held city of Khan Sheikhoun. The Russian Defense Ministry claims that fuel was launched when Syrian forces bombed a chemical munitions depot operated by terrorists. Activists, nonetheless, say that Syrians carried out a focused chemical assault.
April 6, 2017 – The United States launches a army strike on a Syrian authorities airbase in response to the chemical weapon assault on civilians. On US President Donald Trump’s orders, US warships launch 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles on the airbase which was dwelling to the warplanes that carried out the chemical assaults.

July 7, 2017 – Trump and Putin attain an settlement on curbing violence in southwest Syria throughout their assembly on the G20 in Hamburg, Germany. The ceasefire will take impact within the de-escalation zone starting at midday Damascus time on July 9.

October 17, 2017 – ISIS loses management of its self-declared capital, Raqqa. US-backed forces combating in Raqqa say “major military operations” have ended, although there are nonetheless pockets of resistance within the metropolis.
October 26, 2017 – A joint report from the United Nations and worldwide chemical weapons inspectors finds that the Assad regime was liable for the April 2017 sarin assault that killed greater than 80 individuals. Syria has repeatedly denied it had something to do with the assault and likewise denies it has any chemical weapons.
February 24, 2018 – The UN Security Council unanimously approves a 30-day ceasefire decision in Syria, although it’s unclear when the ceasefire is supposed to begin, or how will probably be enforced.
February 27, 2018 – Within minutes of when a five-hour “humanitarian pause” ordered by Putin — from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. — is supposed to begin, activists on the bottom report shelling and artillery fireplace from pro-regime positions, killing at the very least one particular person within the rebel-held enclave of Eastern Ghouta.
March 6, 2018 – More than 1,000 youngsters have been killed or injured this 12 months throughout Syria, UNICEF regional communications chief Juliette Touma tells CNN. In all, 342 youngsters have been killed and 803 have been injured in Syria within the first two months of 2018, Touma says, citing a number of sources.
April 7, 2018 – Helicopters drop barrel bombs stuffed with poisonous fuel on the final rebel-held city in Eastern Ghouta, activist teams say. The World Health Organization later says that as many as 500 individuals could have been affected by the assault.
April 14, 2018 – The United States, France and the United Kingdom launch airstrikes on Syria in response to the chemical weapons assault in Eastern Ghouta per week earlier.
July 27, 2018 – A UN envoy says the UN has verified 7,000 instances of youngsters both killed or maimed in Syria’s seven-year warfare, however says unverified reviews places the quantity “way beyond 20,000.”
September 17, 2018 – Russia and Turkey announce they’ve agreed to create a demilitarized zone in Syria’s Idlib province, doubtlessly thwarting a large-scale army operation and impending humanitarian catastrophe within the nation’s final insurgent stronghold. The zone, which will likely be patrolled by Turkish and Russian army models, will change into operational from October 15.
December 19, 2018 – Trump tweets, “We have defeated ISIS in Syria, my only reason for being there during the Trump Presidency.” A US protection official and an administration official inform CNN that planning for the “full” and “rapid” withdrawal of US army from Syria is already underway.
March 23, 2019 – Kurdish forces announce they’ve captured the japanese Syrian pocket of Baghouz, the final populated space below ISIS rule.
October 9, 2019 – Turkey launches a army offensive into northeastern Syria, simply days after the Trump administration introduced that US troops would depart the border space. Erdogan’s “Operation Peace Spring” is an effort to drive away Kurdish forces from the border, and use the world to resettle round two million Syrian refugees.
March 5, 2020 – Turkey and Russia announce a ceasefire in Idlib, Syria’s final opposition enclave, agreeing to determine a safety hall with joint patrols.

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